Two impressive space discoveries have been making the rounds of the Internet in recent days, giving us a taste of how many different events can occur in the universe. It is a ghost particle detected by a distant cosmic accelerator, as well as an unusual vast cloud recorded above a volcano on Mars.
Regarding the first case, scientists have detected on Earth the presence of a very high energy neutrino, which was created during the destruction of a star by colossal gravity, a black hole with a mass of 30 million suns. According to scientists, this is an important discovery. This event created a kind of giant cosmic particle accelerator, launching neutrinos that recently reached and penetrated Earth.
The discovery sheds new light on the origin of cosmic rays of ultra-high energy, that is, those particles in the universe that have the most energy. On Earth, neutrino subatomic particles are only produced by powerful accelerators. In the universe, neutrinos and their sources are considered one of the most difficult things to detect, which is why the discovery is considered important.
The scan was made by the US IceCube Neutral Observatory at the South Pole, located at Amundsen – Scott Station in Antarctica, USA. In 2017, this frozen detector detected a neutrino, the source of which was determined in 2018 to be an active galaxy (blazer). The originality this time is that it is the first detectable neutrino from a cataclysmic event, namely the destruction of a doomed star that came very close to a black hole. These events, of which astrophysicists do not know much, can act as powerful natural particle accelerators.
The ultra-high energy neutrino, detected by the IceCube, collided with the Antarctic ice with a remarkable energy of over 100 teraelectronvolts. By comparison, it is at least ten times the energy that can be achieved in the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, at CERN.
The event captured by this equipment is known as Glashow tuning. Such events had been predicted, but had never been seen immediately. This discovery by scientists helps confirm some of the deeper foundations of particle physics.
The event was named after Sheldon Glashow, a Nobel Prize-winning physicist who predicted it would happen in 1960. In a post released during his research in Denmark, Glashow said that if the conditions were right, a An antineutrin could interact with an electron to create an invisible particle, through a process called resonance.
This invisible particle was discovered in 1983 and was named the W boson. It was also found to be much heavier than expected, which means that its artificial production would require lean amounts of energy. In particular, it would need a neutrino with an energy greater than 1.000 times more powerful than can be produced in CERN's large Hadron Collider.
Regarding the second case, an unusual vast cloud was recorded over a volcano on the planet Mars. This is a phenomenon that was observed for the first time in 2018, however it remained a mystery until today. Observations of the European satellite Mars Express are now coming to answer this interplanetary mystery.
A team of researchers looked at the life cycle of the cloud using a camera called the "Mars Webcam" on the European Space Agency's Mars Express spacecraft.
The Mars Express, which has been orbiting Mars since 2003, was in the proper orbit to observe the unusual meteorological phenomenon, according to the European Space Agency. (ESA).
In the new study, published in the Journal of Geophysical Research, the researchers combined observations from Mars Express with data from other missions.
The cloud reportedly appears just before sunrise over the summit of Arsia Mons, an inactive volcano about 20 kilometers high. The volcano forces the wind to move upwards on its western slope, when it cools down and the little water vapor it contains condenses. The cloud continues to grow for about two and a half hours, moving west at an altitude of 45 kilometers at an impressive speed of 600 kilometers per hour.
It then stops swelling, detaches from the volcano and drifts west before finally dissolving completely. The phenomenon is repeated daily for several months each spring, the researchers report. Clouds of this kind are called "orographic" because they are formed over mountains, the group explains.
Augustin Sanchez-Lavega of the University of the Basque Country, a member of the research team, noted the following: "Orographic clouds are often observed on Earth, but they do not reach such huge sizes nor do they have such" lively "dynamics. Understanding the mechanism of this cloud gives us an exciting opportunity to reproduce its formation with mathematical models - models that will enhance our knowledge of the climate systems of both Mars and Earth.