Researchers have come up with something called a Gaussian boson sampling system. It is essentially a quantum device designed to solve a single problem. It is based on devices called "beam splitters", so let's take a closer look at how these devices work.
If light "hits" a mirror that is 50 percent reflective - called a beam splitter - then half the light will be transmitted and the other half will be reflected. If the light intensity is enough low so that there is only one photon, reflected or transmitted with the same randomness as a coin toss. She is the idea behind a beam splitter, which can take an incoming photon stream from a laser beam and split it into two rays traveling in different directions.
A beam splitter at 45 degrees can be considered as a four-door device (see Figure). In this picture, you can see if there are two identical photons in the same beam separator from two different ones doorsThe result it is not completely random. Both will come out of the same door, although the exit door is random.
These two simple ideas, together with the idea of entanglement, lead to a specific type of universal quantum computer, called a linear optical quantum computer. Photons solve a problem by the way they propagate through the network, which is determined by where they come from.
The so-called "entanglement" comes in the form of a path followed by photons. Until we can measure this path, we can not know them details of, so we must keep in mind that all photons take all possible paths. Under these conditions, if two photons reach a beam separator at the same time through different ones doors, then their paths will be connected. Creating a large network of dividing bonds creates extensive complicated situations.
The number of output states escalates very quickly with the number of inputs and beam splitters. In the current show, the researchers used 50 inputs and - the exact type of device is not described - a chip equivalent to 300 beam splitters. The total number of possible output states is about 1030, ie about 14 orders of magnitude larger than the next largest quantum computing demonstration.
The photons are sent to the network (one in each input) and exit in a state randomly selected from all possible situations. In less than four minutes, the researchers had obtained results that they estimate that if done in a classic fast computer would be estimated at about 2,4 billion years.